Two of the most difficult problems in the current world of always-on communication are hacking and the spread of “fake news” or misinformation. In some cases, these two very different problems are combining to create one big headache.

In Venezuela, for example, digital-rights group Access Now says it discovered recently that Twitter accounts belonging to a local journalist and a member of parliament and human-rights activist had been hijacked, using a procedure it calls “the Double Switch.”

The hackers then used the accounts to spread fake news, something that has been particularly problematic in Venezuela because of the political unrest there, including a government crackdown that involves online surveillance and censorship.

The journalist and the politician/activist both got in touch with a digital help-line that Access Now operates in a number of countries and asked for help in getting their accounts back.

According to the group, the Double Switch begins when a hacker gets access to the login credentials for an account, whether through a “phishing” attack (which often involves a phony email request pretending to be from the service itself) or through other means.

The hacker then resets the login name and password, as well as the recovery email, so that the original user can’t get access. Then the “double switch” begins.

First, the hacker changes the name on the Twitter account, Access Now says. Then later, they change the name back to the original account-holder’s name or “handle.” They can do this because once a Twitter account is deactivated, the name on the account is freed up for others to use.

By the time the second switch is activated, the hackers have full control, so any attempt by the original account holder to regain access fails, since emails and other messages from Twitter with password-reset information etc. go to the hacker.

Access Now says in its report that the victims worked with Twitter to regain access to their accounts, and were ultimately successful in doing so. But by then, much damage had been done.

In one case, the user’s account was deleted. In the other, some of the account-holder’s original tweets were deleted, and the account was used to spread misinformation about events in Venezuela.

The digital-rights group — which said that similar methods could theoretically be used to hijack an account on Facebook or Instagram as well as Twitter — asked for social-media companies to do more to make it easier for account-holders to get access to a hijacked account.

The group also recommended that Twitter and others have different methods for restricting access to an account, apart from what is called “two-factor authentication.”

Two-factor authentication uses two different methods to verify a user’s identity, such as a password and a special one-time code sent to a mobile phone. Activists in countries like Venezuela, however, might not want to have their phone associated with such an account, Access Now said, because it could open them up to surveillance and harassment.

Google confirmed recently that it is coming out with a new version of its Chrome browser that will have ad-blocking features built in, which the company says will make it easier for users to surf the web without being annoyed by intrusive ads.

The search giant is coming under fire for not blocking another annoying and intrusive aspect of web browsers, however—namely, the fact that they track their users’ behavior.

As the Electronic Frontier Foundation pointed out on Wednesday, Apple just announced a new version of its Safari browser that will not only block certain types of annoying ads (including auto-playing video ads), but will also disable user tracking.

Google’s update is focused solely on blocking what it says are obtrusive ads such as unwanted videos, ads that have a timer that counts down before the user can see the content, and so on.

“At the EFF, we understand that advertising funds much of the media and services online, but we also believe that users have the right to protect themselves against tracking,” researcher Alan Toner wrote in an essay published by the foundation. “Advertising is currently built around a surveillance architecture, and this has to change.”

Google’s decision to block certain types of advertising by default has been criticized by publishers and antitrust experts because of its dominant position in the digital ad market.

According to a recent research report from Pivotal analyst Brian Wieser, Google and Facebook combined control more than 75% of the $70-billion digital advertising market in the U.S., and the two companies alone accounted for almost all the growth in the market last year.

That dominant position is likely also the reason Google doesn’t want to block user tracking, since advertisers rely on those methods to target ads effectively.

Apple has no real advertising business, and therefore it doesn’t mind cutting off tracking in its browser. And the company has made a point in the past of stressing that it doesn’t invade its users privacy the way that companies like Google and Facebook do.

In his essay, the EFF researcher also notes that in addition to blocking ads, Google is offering publishers a new feature called Funding Choices, which will allow them to offer users the ability to turn off third-party ad blocking software and pay the publisher directly for content.

Even if users choose to do this, however, they can still be tracked by advertisers, Toner says. The new feature lets people pay sites to avoid being shown ads “but does not prevent Google, the site, or any other advertisers from continuing to track people who pay.”

Toner says the advertising industry has repeatedly rebuffed efforts to come up with a standard for opting out of tracking, like the Do Not Track program that was initially proposed in 2011.

“The industry’s sole response has been to create a system called AdChoices, which offers users a complicated and inefficient opt-out from targeted ads, but not from the data collection and the behavioral tracking behind the targeting,” the EFF researcher said.

When Snap went public in March, in one of the most eagerly anticipated tech IPOs in recent memory, some analysts expressed concern about a slowdown in the growth of its Snapchat messaging app. Now, a new number suggests those concerns may have been well founded.

In a note to Nomura Instinet’s invesment clients on Wednesday, Snap analyst Anthony DiClemente said that statistics from SensorTower—a company that tracks the popularity of mobile apps—shows that downloads of Snapchat have fallen by 22% in the last two months.

Downloads on Apple’s iOS platform have been even worse, the company found—they declined by more than 40% in the first two months of the second quarter.

By comparison, downloads of Facebook-owned Instagram have shown year-over-year growth, DiClemente pointed out in his note, “suggesting that competitive pressures may be intensifying for Snap, challenging the platform’s ability to attract and retain new users.”

The analyst has a “reduce” rating on the stock and a $14 price target, and said he has lowered both his revenue and profit estimates for this year and next year.

Snap’s stock [fortune-stock symbol=”SNAP”] traded as high as $27 after it went public, giving the company a market value of $18 billion, but it has fallen sharply since. Its share price dropped by another 6% on Thursday to trade in the $18 range, not far from its IPO price of $17.

In its first quarterly report as a public company last month, Snap said that it lost over $2 billion, primarily as a result of equity grants to executives like CEO Evan Spiegel.

Much of the pressure on Snap’s shares stems from concerns that Instagram is eating into the company’s user growth, and taking away advertisers as well.

Instagram added a feature called Stories earlier this year, which allows users to add multiple photos and videos to create a collection with a specific theme. The feature is essentially a carbon copy of a Snapchat feature with the same name.

Instagram said earlier this year that more than 200 million people use its Stories feature, which is more than Snapchat’s entire user base.

Snap and its defenders, however, argue that Snapchat functions differently from Instagram because it is much more focused on sharing among individuals, whereas Instagram has more of a public broadcast model, in which users track how many likes and comments they get.

According to a recent survey by App Annie, another app analytics company, about 35% of Snapchat’s daily users in the U.S. aren’t on Facebook the same day they use the app, and more than 45% can’t be found on Instagram on the same day they use Snapchat.

The risk for Snap, is that while Snapchat’s model may be more appealing to users, Instagram’s model may actually turn out to be more interesting to advertisers.

Google parent Alphabet’s annual shareholder meetings are a very civilized affair, with chairman Eric Schmidt playing host, sharing a vision of the better world the company is creating, followed by polite questions and proposals from shareholders.

Those shareholder proposals, however, are largely a false front—window dressing, if you will. Because as everyone at the meeting probably knows, there are only two shareholders who really matter at an Alphabet annual meeting, and their names are Larry Page and Sergey Brin.

That’s because Google founders Page and Brin control 51% of the votes, despite owning just 11% of the overall equity. Their voting control comes through their large ownership stake in Class B shares, which carry 10 votes each (Schmidt’s stake gives him 5% of the overall votes).

One by one, shareholder representatives stood up at the meeting in Mountain View, Calif. on Wednesday morning, including several from large investors such as Northstar Asset Management, which owns 7.2 million shares. They presented a range of proposals designed to try and force Alphabet to take action on a variety of issues.

A proposal from Arjuna Capital, for example, would have required that the company produce numbers related to the pay gap between male and female staff, an issue that is currently the subject of an investigation by the U.S. Department of Labor.

The department has alleged that there are “systemic compensation disparities against women” at Alphabet, but the company maintains that this is not the case. In the shareholder proxy document filed with regulators, it argued that shareholders should vote against the Arjuna proposal because it is “not in the best interests of the company and its stockholders.”

Another motion, also backed by Arjuna and several other institutional shareholders, proposed that the company be required to produce a report describing what kind of action it is taking to prevent the spread of “fake news” and misinformation through its networks.

Arjuna director Natasha Lamb told the meeting that such misinformation “has affected elections in the U.K, France and the U.S., and the confusion cuts across political lines—a study from Pew shows that 64% of Americans trust news on the Internet less than a year ago.” Steps the company has announced to take action, she said “are too little and too late.”

The investment fund presented an identical motion at Facebook’s recent annual meeting, and just like the proposal at Alphabet’s meeting, it was voted down—and for the same reason, since Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg controls a majority of the votes in the company.

The motion from NorthStar was perhaps the most quixotic of them all: It proposed that Alphabet restructure its shares in order to give every shareholder a single vote.

A representative for the fund said that it’s easy to ignore voting-rights inequities when profits are up, but it “poses significant risk” to the company’s future performance. “It’s impossible for shareholders to have any meaningful input,” the NorthStar spokesman said. “We are very concerned about the governance risks of relying on two or three people.”

Just like all the other shareholder proposals, the Northstar motion was voted down.

Most of the users watching Apple’s WWDC conference on Monday were probably interested in what the company’s new products can do, but at least some of the interest in Apple’s latest version of its Safari web browser was based on what it doesn’t do.

In a nutshell, the version of Safari that is rolling out with Mac’s new High Sierra operating system won’t display auto-playing videos on websites, something many web users hate. And it won’t allow websites to track users as they move across the web either.

These new features may put Apple on users’ good side, since both autoplaying videos and user-tracking are seen as annoying and intrusive. But publishers and media companies aren’t likely to greet these new additions with open arms, and neither are advertisers.

Apple’s Craig Federighi said the upcoming version of Safari will block autoplay videos and will feature what he called “intelligent tracking prevention,” which will prevent websites from tracking your browsing data. “Now your browser history is your own,” he said.

Apple’s moves come on the heels of an announcement from Google that the next version of its Chrome web browser—which has about 60% of the market—will block certain ad types by default, including autoplaying video ads. In some cases, websites that have a lot of low-quality ads will have all their ads blocked, not just the ones that breach Google’s rules.

In Google’s case, the fact that the company is one of the world’s largest advertising entities and Chrome is the leading browser by market share makes some publishers and advertisers nervous.

Although the search giant points out that the definition of which ads are acceptable comes from an independent industry group called the Coalition for Better Ads, some believe that the default blocking of certain ads puts too much power in Google’s hands.

Apple doesn’t have a huge digital advertising business the way Google does, and its browser is the third or fourth player in the market based on recent estimates. So it would be harder to make the case that Apple’s choice to not show autoplaying videos is anti-competitive.

That said, however, Apple has a large and powerful user base of loyal fans, and the fact that it is using that power to remove certain forms of advertising—and tools that advertisers and publishers use, such as user tracking—is bound to set off alarm bells for some in the industry.

Although it is a small player in relative terms, Apple sparked much of the current outcry about ad-blocking software when it enabled support for third-party ad blockers in iOS 9 in 2015.

Ad-blocking in general, on both the desktop and mobile web, has been growing rapidly over the past couple of years, according to industry surveys. Users on mobile devices in particular are not happy with the time-consuming and intrusive ads that many sites rely on.

Publishers, meanwhile, argue that they have no choice but to use these annoying features, because Google and Facebook have taken over so much of the digital-advertising market.

According to one industry analyst, the two companies combined have about 75% of the $70-billion U.S. digital advertising market, and between the two of them, they accounted for virtually all of the growth in the industry last year.